Images by Date
Images by Category
Solar System
White Dwarfs
Neutron Stars
Black Holes
Milky Way Galaxy
Normal Galaxies
Galaxy Clusters
Cosmology/Deep Field
Images by Interest
Space Scoop for Kids
Sky Map
Photo Blog
Top Rated Images
Image Handouts
Fits Files
Image Tutorials
Photo Album Tutorial
False Color
Cosmic Distance
Look-Back Time
Scale & Distance
Angular Measurement
Images & Processing
Image Use Policy
Web Shortcuts
Chandra Blog
RSS Feed
Email Newsletter
News & Noteworthy
Image Use Policy
Questions & Answers
Glossary of Terms
Download Guide
Get Adobe Reader
More Information
Normal Galaxies & Starburst Galaxies
Related Podcasts
Tour: Astronomers Find Spark of Star Birth Across Billions of Years
Download Image

More Information

More Images
X-ray ROSAT PSPC Image
(Credit: NASA/MPE/CfA)

Related Images
EMSS 1358+6245
EMSS 1358+6245
(06 Sep 01)
NGC 720:
Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative To Dark Matter

NGC 720
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UCI/D.Buote et al., Optical: DSS U.K.Schmidt Image/STScI

A Chandra image of NGC 720 shows a galaxy enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy.

According to the standard theory of gravity, the X-ray producing cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy.

An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, does away with the need for dark matter. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720, which shows that the dark matter halo has a different shape from that of the stars and gas in the galaxy. This implies that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real.

The Chandra data also fit predictions of a cold dark matter model. According to this model, dark matter consists of slowly moving particles which interact with each other and "normal" matter only through gravity. Other dark matter models, such as self-interacting dark matter, and cold molecular dark matter, are not consistent with the observation in that they require a dark matter halo that is too round or too flat, respectively.

Fast Facts for NGC 720:
Credit  X-ray: NASA/CXC/UCI/D.Buote et al., Optical: DSS U.K.Schmidt Image/STScI
Scale  Images are 5 x 4.2 arcmin
Category  Normal Galaxies & Starburst Galaxies
Coordinates (J2000)  RA 01h 53m 0.4s | Dec -13° 44' 18"
Constellation  Cetus
Observation Dates  Chandra: October 12, 2000, DSS: August 08, 1982
Observation Time  Chandra: 10 hours, DSS: 1 hour
Obs. IDs  492
Color Code  Intensity (Chandra: 0.3-3keV bandwidth)
Instrument  ACIS
References D. Buote et al., 2002 Astrophys. J. 577, 183.
Distance Estimate  About 80 million light years
Release Date  October 22, 2002