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More Images of Chandra Serves up Cosmic Holiday Assortment
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Image Gallery
A collection of images including Chandra data that range in object type and distance.
(Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO)

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X-ray & Optical Images of E0102-72.3
This supernova remnant was produced by a massive star that exploded in a nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. X-rays from Chandra (blue and purple) have helped astronomers confirm that most of the oxygen in the universe is synthesized in massive stars. The amount of oxygen in the E0102-72.3 ring shown here is enough for thousands of solar systems. This image also contains optical data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope in Chile (red and green).
(Credit: X-ray (NASA/CXC/ESO/F.Vogt et al); Optical (ESO/VLT/MUSE), Optical (NASA/STScI))

Fast Facts for E0102-72.3:
Credit:  X-ray (NASA/CXC/ESO/F.Vogt et al); Optical (ESO/VLT/MUSE), Optical (NASA/STScI)
Scale:  Image is 6.95 arcmin across (about 400 light years)
Category:  Supernovas & Supernova Remnants
Neutron Stars
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 01h 04m 1.50s | Dec -72° 01' 55.7"
Constellation:  Tucana
Observation Dates:  28 pointings between February 1, 2003 and March 19, 2017
Observation Time:  113 hours 21 seconds (4 days 17 hours 21 seconds)
Obs. IDs:  3519-3520, 3544-3545, 5123-5124, 5130-5131, 6042-6043, 6074-6075, 6758-6759, 6765-6766, 8365,9694, 10654-10656, 11957, 13093, 14258, 15467, 16589, 18418, 19850
Instrument:  ACIS
Also Known as:  SNR1E 0102.2-7219
Color Code:  X-ray: blue and purple; Optical/VLT: red, Optical/HST: red and green)
References:  Vogt, F. et al, 2018, Nature Astronomy, arXiv:1803.01006
Distance Estimate  Distance to LMC is 200,000 light years

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X-ray & Optical Images of Abell 370
Located about 4 billion light years from Earth, Abell 370 is a galaxy cluster containing several hundred galaxies. Galaxy clusters are the largest objects in the Universe held together by gravity. In addition to the individual galaxies, they contain vast amounts of multimillion-degree gas that emits X-rays, and dark matter that supplies most of the gravity of the cluster, yet does not produce any light. Chandra reveals the hot gas (diffuse blue regions) in a combined image with optical data from Hubble (red, green, and blue).
(Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Penn State Univ./G. Garmire; Optical: NASA/STScI))

Fast Facts for Abell 370:
Credit:  X-ray: NASA/CXC/Penn State Univ./G. Garmire; Optical: NASA/STScI
Scale:  Image is 3 arcmin across (about 3 million light years)
Category:  Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 02h 39m 50.5s | Dec -01° 35' 08.00"
Constellation:  Cetus
Observation Dates:  October 22, 1999
Observation Time:  24 hours 45 min (1 day 45 minutes)
Obs. IDs:  515
Instrument:  ACIS
Color Code:  X-ray: blue; Optical: red, green, and blue
Distance Estimate  About 4.11 billion light years

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X-ray & Optical Images of Messier 8
Also known as NGC 6523 or the Lagoon Nebula, Messier 8 is a giant cloud of gas and dust where stars are currently forming. At a distance of about 4,000 light years from Earth, Messier 8 provides astronomers an excellent opportunity to study the properties of very young stars. Many infant stars give off copious amounts of high-energy light including X-rays, which are seen in the Chandra data (pink). The X-ray data have been combined with an optical image of Messier 8 from the Mt. Lemmon Sky Center in Arizona (blue and white).
(Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona)

Fast Facts for Messier 8:
Credit:  X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona
Scale:  Image is about 1.7 arcminutes across (about 2 light years)
Category:  Normal Stars & Star Clusters
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 18h 03m 37s | Dec -242° 23' 12"
Constellation:  Sagittarius
Observation Dates:  5 pointings between August 11, 2004 and Jun 10, 2005
Observation Time:  88 hours 8 minutes (3 days 16 hours 8 minutes)
Obs. IDs:  3754, 4397, 4444, 5398, 6285
Instrument:  ACIS
Color Code:  X-ray: purple; Optical: blue and white
Distance Estimate  About 4,000 light years

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X-ray & Radio Images of the Orion Nebula
Look just below the middle of the three stars of belt in the constellation of Orion to find the Orion Nebula, which can be seen without a telescope. With a telescope like Chandra, however, the view is much different. In this image, X-rays from Chandra (blue) reveal individual young stars, which are hot and energetic. When combined with radio emission from the NSF's Very Large Array (purple), a vista of this stellar nursery is created that the unaided human eye could never capture.
(Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Wolk et al; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA)

Fast Facts for Orion Nebula:
Credit:  X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Wolk et al; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA
Scale:  Image is 6.8 arcmin across (about 3 light years)
Category:  Normal Stars & Star Clusters
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 5h 35m 14.29s | Dec -05° 23' 37.91"
Constellation:  Orion
Observation Dates:  12 pointings between October 1999 and October 2012
Observation Time:  278 hours 32 minutes (11 days 32 minutes)
Obs. IDs:  18, 1522, 3498, 3744, 4373, 4374, 4395, 4396, 8568, 13637, 14334, 14335, 15546
Instrument:  ACIS
Color Code:  X-ray: blue; Radio: purple
References:  Forbrich et al., 2017, ApJ, 844, 109; arXiv:1706.05562 and Forbrich et al., 2016, ApJ, 822, 93; arXiv:1603.05666
Distance Estimate  About 1,500 light years

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X-ray & Optical Images of Messier 33
The Triangulum Galaxy, a.k.a., Messier 33, is a spiral galaxy about 3 million light years from Earth. It belongs to the Local Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. Chandra's X-ray data (pink) reveal a diverse range of objects including neutron stars and black holes that are pulling material from a companion star, and supernova remnants. An optical image from amateur astronomer Warren Keller (red, green, and blue) shows the majestic arms of this spiral galaxy that in many ways is a cousin to our own Milky Way.
(Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical:Warren Keller, Mayhill, NM)

Fast Facts for Messier 33:
Credit:  Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical:Warren Keller, Mayhill, NM
Scale:  Image is about 50 arcmins (about 40,000 light years)
Category:  Normal Galaxies & Starburst Galaxies
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 01h 33m 50s | Dec 30° 39' 37"
Constellation:  Triangulum
Observation Dates:  28 observations from August 2000 to November 2006
Observation Time:  407 hours 50 minutes 24 seconds (16 days 17 hours 24 seconds)
Obs. IDs:  786, 787, 1730, 3948, 6376-6389, 7170, 7171, 7196-7199, 7208, 7226, 7344, 7402
Instrument:  ACIS
Also Known as:  Triangulum Galaxy
Color Code:  X-ray: pink;, Optical: red, green, and blue
References:  Tuellmann, R. et al., 2011, ApJS, 193, 31; arXiv:1102.4568
Distance Estimate  About 2.7 million light years

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X-ray, Optical, and Radio Images of Abell 2744
This composite image contains the aftermath of a giant collision involving four separate galaxy clusters at a distance of about 3.5 billion light years. Officially known as Abell 2744, this system is also referred to by astronomers as "Pandora's Cluster" because all of the different structures found within it. This view of Abell 2744 contains X-ray data from Chandra (blue) showing hot gas, optical data from Subaru and the VLT (red, green and blue), and radio data from the NSF's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (red).
(Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/ITA/INAF/J.Merten et al; Radio: NRAO/AUI/NSF/B.Saxton; Optical: NAOJ/Subaru & ESO/VLT)

Fast Facts for Abell 2744:
Credit:  X-ray: NASA/CXC/ITA/INAF/J.Merten et al; Radio: NRAO/AUI/NSF/B.Saxton; Optical: NAOJ/Subaru & ESO/VLT
Scale:  Image is 6.7 arcmin across (about 5.9 million light years)
Category:  Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
Coordinates (J2000):  RA 00h 14m 19.2s | Dec -30° 23' 07.2"
Constellation:  Sculptor
Observation Dates:  5 pointings between September 3, 2001 and September 10, 2007
Observation Time:  35 hours 14 minutes (1 days 11 hours 14 minutes)
Obs. IDs:  2212, 7915, 8477, 8557, 7712
Instrument:  ACIS
Color Code:  X-ray: blue; Optical: red, green, and blue; Radio: red
References:  Merten, J. et al, 2011, MNRAS, 417, 333; arXiv:1103.2772
Distance Estimate  About 3.5 billion light years (z=0.308)


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